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Research: As part of his undergraduate thesis, Camilo Alfonso studied male-male interactions in a lek of this species. His results show that males are aggressive toward other males but seem to recognize neighbor males by their song members of their own lek and are aggressive to intrusive stranger males. Because of its throaty song, people misidentify it as a cricket or a little frog. This species has a dispersed lek mating system and males perform displays on mossy fallen logs on the forest floor.

Their leks are comprised of five to eight males present in arenas. Research: Dr. Projects address questions about social networks, male ascension, individual variations in male displays, female choice, and home-range. Alice Boyle, Dr.

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Their displays are mainly silent, and these birds can be surprisingly hard to see, even where they are common. Females travel widely between display logs of different males, at first observing inconspicuously from nearby vegetation, then landing on the logs of males who impress them. The culmination of male displays involves a flight to well above the canopy where they circle and make high calls. Like many other montane-breeding species, some individuals migrate annually down to lower elevations during the non-breeding season.

The birds that migrate pay a reproductive cost by losing social status and being less attractive to females during the next breeding season. Alice Boyle began studying the migration of this species as a PhD student to determine the causes of their migrations. Those results implicated weather—specifically heavy rainfall during the non-breeding season—as the driver of those migrations.

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Birds have lots of food to eat, but may not have enough rain-free hours in the day to forage to meet their energy needs during the heavy storms that hit the Caribbean slope during the wet season. She is testing the idea that precipitation regime constrains manakin life history and the potential for sexual selection. By comparing the behavior, social interactions, and genetic diversity of populations experiencing different amounts of rainfall, she is exploring how natural selection and sexual selection interact to drive evolution in white-ruffed manakins.

Some cooperate and others are loners. Despite the threat of habitat loss, this bird is easily seen in the forest because males gather together to perform a frenzied dance for females. Groups of dancing males can be large, reaching up to seven individuals displaying at the same time.

Lilian Manica and members of her lab have been studying swallow-tailed manakins since Their main focus is to understand the mechanisms underlying displays and how they influence female choice and male-male social interactions. To do so, they focus on an array of signals, such as vocalizations, motor exhibitions, and plumage coloration.

Males often join and leave exhibitions in the middle of the performance, skipping turns and interrupting other males. How can females keep track of all this? In the forest, it is common to see young males practicing alone and in groups to improve their abilities. The majority of displays do not end in copulation, even if they look perfect to the human eye! Chiroxiphia manakins exhibit obligate cooperative behaviors in which long-term bonds are formed between a dominant alpha and one or more subordinate beta males.

Mariana Villegas studied ecological differentiation patterns in the Yungas manakin at different levels and scales; she examined whether patterns of niche differentiation or similarity could be inferred at the species distribution level, she examined whether ecological selection has influenced variation of morphological and vocal characters along an elevational gradient, and she also tested whether the species migrates attitudinally.

Emily DuVal, Dr. Males form partnerships that can last for up to six years. These partners perform cooperative dance displays for females, however only the alpha male copulates with receptive females. Using the data from this population of lance-tailed manakins Dr.

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DuVal and lab members address questions about variation in female mate choice, lek mating systems, and male alliance formation. It is the only dimorphic piprid species that inhabits a forest-like environment gallery forests surrounded by extensive savanna vegetation in the Cerrado biome, one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world.

Contrary to most polygamous dichromatic manakins, this species apparently does not perform lekking courtship displays. Male ornamentation suggests it is under strong sexual selection favoring certain phenotypic characters.

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This would be a rare instance of loss of lekking behavior in the Pipridae family, and the species may represent a link between polygamous and monogamous mating systems. Research: Lia is most interested in exploring questions regarding the social and genetic mating strategies e. It is believed that the illegal trade of males of the helmeted manakin deprived females of a normal mating.

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Very little is known about the Araripe manakin, researchers have only recently been able to study the mating system of these manakins. More than one female nests in a male's "territory", however parental care is provided only by the female. Females lay 1 - 2 eggs and will make multiple nesting attempts in a single breeding system in the case of nest loss.

Besides what was reported from the first observations of this species, Araripe manakins are not monogamous and different paternity was found for siblings from the same nest. Unlike many other manakin species no cooperative dance displays have been reported. Males are very vocal during breeding season which, after 5 years of study, is thought to be a solitary display that was previously thought of as a territory defense.

Research: During her PhD Milene Garbim Gaiotti was the first researcher to study the reproductive system of Araripe manakins. They are found in subtropical and tropical moist lowland forests.

Males vary greatly in body plumage color throughout the species' distribution, color varying from olive green to black, while females are always green. As in other species of the family, males display in leks to attract females to mate. The display behavior is also variable among areas. Research: Carolina Ferreira has been studying the evolution of body plumage color as a consequence of environmental and genetic effects.

She and other lab members are interested in understanding phenotypic evolution morphological and behavioral , habitat selection and geographical distribution. Leks and stages are inherited and persist across many generations. Males are black, gray and white whereas females and juveniles are dull green.

The display arena of males is characterized as an oval arena delimited by two or more saplings on the ground and varies from 0. It is actively cleared from litter by the owner. Females are attracted to lek areas to copulate with competing males. As most of manakins, the species diet is predominantly frugivore they also may eat insects. There are two methods that a male butterfly might use in order to search for a female mate. It might patrol or fly over a particular area where other butterflies are active.

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If it sees a possible mate, it will fly in for a closer look. Or, instead, it might perch on a tall plant in an area where females may be present. If it spots a likely mate, it will swoop in to investigate. In either case, if he finds a suitable female he will begin the mating ritual.

If he finds another male instead, a fierce fight may ensue. A male butterfly has several methods of determining whether he has found a female of his own species. One way is by sight. The male will look for butterflies with wings that are the correct color and pattern. When a male sights a potential mate it will fly closer, often behind or above the female. The male may also do a special "courtship dance" to attract the female. These "dances" consist of flight patterns that are peculiar to that species of butterfly. If the female is interested she may join the male's dance.